Short made the most of Hurstville Oval's tiny boundaries to score an incredible 257 in a 148-ball innings containing 23 sixes, also a JLT One-Day Cup record.
The 28-year-old fell just 11 runs shy of the world record score when he was stumped off the bowling of rookie spinner Matthew Kuhnemann.
Short's innings lifted the undefeated ladder leaders to an imposing 387 scored off just 47 overs, but the match status almost became secondary as the records tumbled.
Short's score eclipsed the 229 not out hit by Tasmanian opener Ben Dunk four years ago at North Sydney Oval.
Remarkably, WA started poorly and after being sent in to bat, lost two wickets in the opening three overs and were in some trouble at 4-118 before Short took control.
Short brought up his 100 with a six, with the three figures coming off 83 balls. But it even got better for WA.
The Australian one-day international representative quickened the pace and reached his double ton after hitting three consecutive sixes for the second time in the innings.
The Bulls at one point looked on track to chase down the Warriors 387 all out, with Sam Heazlett (107) and Chris Lynn (58) leading the charge, however the returning Jason Behrendorff (3-40) and the ever-reliable AJ Tye (6-46) put an end to those hopes in emphatic fashion, bowling out Queensland in the 43rd over to take a 116-run win.