The Bushrangers are 4-247 at stumps on day two with a first-innings lead of four runs over the Alcohol.Think Again Western Warriors.
Victoria resumed at 1-20 on Monday morning having dismissed WA for 243 after the visitors won the toss and elected to bat.
Maxwell scored a stunning 278 against NSW last week and smashed nine fours and a six in a commanding display before Jhye Richardson trapped him LBW after tea.
Cameron White (53 not out) and Dan Christian (17 not out) will look to build the Bushrangers' lead on day three as they attempt to score their first win of the season and climb off the bottom of the Shield table.
Scattered showers across Melbourne made conditions tricky, with over two hours of play needing to be recovered after the covers were called for on three occasions.
Opener Marcus Harris (43) was caught in the deep off the bowling of Ashton Agar shortly before lunch and Victoria skipper Aaron Finch made 21 before he was bowled by Matthew Kelly with the score at 3-128.
Richardson is WA's only multiple wicket-taker with figures of 2-56 from 20 overs.
Will Bosisto top-scored for WA with 57 and wicketkeeper Josh Inglis made a handy 46.